The decrease in SO2 emissions from transport is significantly influenced by the tightening of legislation governing the concentration of sulphur in liquid fuels (since 2009, it has been limited to 10 mg/kg for both petrol and diesel). The limit value of concentration of sulphur in fuels used in road transport in 2015 was not exceeded in Slovenia or in the EU-28; the same applies to air and maritime transport. In the last several years, lead has no longer been present in liquid fuels (in road transport), while the benzene concentration in petrol has been below the prescribed value (1% V/V).
This indicator shows the quality of fuels used in various transport modes in Slovenia and compares it with the quality of fuels in EU countries.
The quality of liquid fuels in transport directly affects air quality. In order to reduce adverse impacts on the environment, the physical/chemical composition and characteristics of fuels must be maintained and air emissions resulting from combustion of liquid fuels must be reduced. In order to prevent excessive air emissions, limit values for content of certain substances (e.g. sulphur, lead and benzene) in liquid fuels have been prescribed. Fuels used in air and maritime/inland waterway transport contain sulphur, among other substances, while fuels used in road transport contain benzene (its content is extremely low) in addition to sulphur.
Sulphur, which is naturally present in small concentrations in oil and coal, is a predominant source of sulphur dioxide emissions. In combustion of sulphur-containing fuels, SO2 is released into the atmosphere. Due to its acidic properties, it causes the formation of acidic compounds that are deposited in waters or on the ground. Acidification can have adverse impacts on river or lake ecosystems, forests, crops and other vegetation. As sulphur dioxide tends to oxidise as sulphates in the atmosphere, damage to buildings and cultural monuments is possible. It is also known that SO2 contributes to the formation of particulates (aerosols) in the atmosphere, which leads to the formation of mist and fog and, consequently, reduced visibility, particularly in urban and industrial areas.
Lead is a toxic metal harmful to humans and the environment. The presence of lead in fuels prevents the functioning of catalytic converters that clean exhaust gases, which causes pollution of air with residual hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, methane and other harmful compounds. In Slovenia, the content of lead in petrol had been gradually decreasing since 1995, while in 2001, it was banned.
Benzene is a carcinogen already present in small quantities in crude oil, while it is also generated in the technological production process of high octane components of gasoline. The most direct and efficient way of limiting benzene emissions is to reduce the content of benzene in liquid fuels.
EU Fuel Quality Report, Slovenia 2005-2015.
*Note to Figure PR17-1: the concentration of sulfur in the fuel 98 octane are shown only in the table since they can not be properly displayed on the graph due to prescribed format.
EU Fuel Quality Report, Slovenia, 2005-2015.
*Note to Figure PR17-2: the concentration of sulfur in the fuel 98 octane are shown only in the table since they can not be properly displayed on the graph due to prescribed format.
EU Fuel Quality Reporting Slovenia, 2005-2015.
EU Fuel Quality Report, Slovenia, 2008-2015.
|marine gas oil||% (m/m)||0||0||0||0.1||0||0||0||0|
|marine residual fuel||% (m/m)||2.8||2.7||2.8||3.4||1.1||2.8||2.5||1.5|
EU Fuel Quality Monitoring 2002-2013;
* Except for France, which did not submit reports for the period 2003-2005.
* Except for Malta, which had not submitted reports in 2006.
*** Except for Luxembourg, it did not submit reports for the years 2007 and 2008, and in 2009 did not report any data.
EU Fuel Quality Report, Slovenia, 2007-2015.
|Petrol 95||% (v/v)||0.7||0.7||0.6||0.8||0.7||0.8||0.6||0.7||0.7|
|Petrol 98||% (v/v)||0.8||0.5||0.6||0.6||0.5||0.7||0.8||0.7||0.7|
|limit value from 1.1.2005||% (v/v)||1||1||1||1||1||1||1||1||1|
EU Fuel Quality Reporting, 2014