Slovenia’s relatively high energy intensity is decreasing too slowly compared to other EU Member States. In 2008, total energy intensity increased after decreasing for six years, which represents a deviation from the set objectives.
This indicator shows total energy intensity that is calculated as the ratio between the total energy consumption and gross domestic product for a calendar year. Energy consumption per unit of GDP is one of the main indicators of sustainable development that shows to what extent there is a decoupling between energy consumption and economic growth over time. The indicator decreases if GDP grows at a higher rate than energy consumption and environmental pressures decrease if energy consumption decreases.
Energy intensity decreases with improvements in energy efficiency (Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia, 2009). It enables us to evaluate the energy consumption of the economy and its energy efficiency. It is measured in toe/million EUR 2000 (the consumed primary energy is measured in tonnes of oil equivalent and the national gross domestic product is converted into constant prices (in EUR) in the year 2000 so as to enable direct comparability among Member States).
Total energy consumption is the sum of total energy consumption of different sources of energy: solid, liquid and gaseous fuels, nuclear energy, renewable energy sources and exports and imports of electricity (net import of electricity).
Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia, 2009; Ministry of the Economy, 2009.
|Total energy consumption = Total primary energy supply||ktoe||5282||5527||5768||6143||6443||6661||6496||6442||6360||6749|
|GDP constant prices of the previous year, reference year 2000||mio EUR||15509||15950||16799||17489||18119||19010||19693||20743||21600||22216|
|Total energy intensity - Slovenia||toe/mio EUR||341||347||343||351||356||350||330||311||294||304|
|Total energy consumption = Total primary energy supply||ktoe||6820||6931||7129||7307||7318||7336||7749|
|GDP constant prices of the previous year, reference year 2000||mio EUR||23098||23753||24771||25884||27388||29249||30271|
|Total energy intensity - Slovenia||toe/mio EUR||295||292||288||282||267||251||256|
Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia, 2009; Eurostat, 2009.
|Total primary energy supply||ktoe||6143||6443||6661||6496||6442||6360||6749||6820||6931||7129|
|GDP constant prices of the previous year, reference year 2000||mio EUR||17489||18119||19010||19693||20743||21600||22216||23098||23753||24771|
|Total energy intensity - Slovenia||toe/mio EUR||351||356||350||330||311||294||304||295||292||288|
|Total energy intensity - EU25||toe/mio EUR 2000||201||204||198||194||188||182||183||180||182||180|
|Total primary energy supply||Index (1990 = 100)||100||105||108||106||105||104||110||111||113||116|
|GDP constant prices of the previous year, reference year 2000||Index (1990 = 100)||100||104||109||113||119||124||127||132||136||142|
|Total energy intensity - Slovenia||Index (1990 = 100)||100||101||100||94||89||84||87||84||83||82|
|Total energy intensity - EU25||Index (1990 = 100)||100||101||99||97||94||91||91||90||91||90|
|Total primary energy supply||ktoe||7307||7318||7336|
|GDP constant prices of the previous year, reference year 2000||mio EUR||25884||27388||29249|
|Total energy intensity - Slovenia||toe/mio EUR||282||267||251|
|Total energy intensity - EU25||toe/mio EUR 2000||177||171||165|
|Total primary energy supply||Index (1990 = 100)||119||119||119|
|GDP constant prices of the previous year, reference year 2000||Index (1990 = 100)||148||157||167|
|Total energy intensity - Slovenia||Index (1990 = 100)||80||76||72|
|Total energy intensity - EU25||Index (1990 = 100)||88||85||82|
|Total energy intensity 2007||toe/PPS||155||153||147||209||306||281||260||245||224|
|Total energy intensity 2007||toe/PPS||208||203||202||192||190||176||174||167||165||163|
|Total energy intensity 2007||toe/PPS||162||154||150||140||136||135||132||130||128||128|
|Total energy intensity 2007||toe/PPS||127||108|
|TEI change 2000-2007||%||-10||-10||-10||-19||3||0||-2||-4||-4|
|TEI 2000||toe/mio EUR 2000||187||182||168||519||191||140||145||184||165|
|TEI 2007||toe/mio EUR 2000||169||165||152||421||197||141||142||177||159|
|TEI change 2000-2007||%||-4||-6||-6||-7||-8||-9||-10||-11||-13||-15|
|TEI 2000||toe/mio EUR 2000||205||112||196||246||180||166||237||205||180||300|
|TEI 2007||toe/mio EUR 2000||197||106||184||230||165||151||212||182||156||253|
|Czech Republic||Hungary||Poland||Belgium||United Kingdom||Lithuania||Bulgaria||Ireland||Romania||Latvia|
|TEI change 2000-2007||%||-16||-17||-18||-19||-20||-24||-25||-25||-29||-30|
|TEI 2000||toe/mio EUR 2000||659||482||489||244||145||571||1361||137||913||441|
|TEI 2007||toe/mio EUR 2000||552||401||400||199||116||432||1016||103||652||307|
|TEI change 2000-2007||%||-30||-32|
|TEI 2000||toe/mio EUR 2000||819||796|
|TEI 2007||toe/mio EUR 2000||577||539|
- reduction in total energy intensity;
- implementation of measures aimed at facilitating efficient use should result in a saving 9 % of total energy consumption in the 2008-2016 period;
- 20 % energy savings by 2020.
Data for Slovenia and other countries
Objectives summarised by: Resolucija o Nacionalnem energetskem programu (Resolution on the National Energy Programme, Official Gazette of the Republic of Slovenia, No. 57/04), Directive 2006/32/EC on Energy End-Use Efficiency and Energy Services and the proposal of the climate and energy package.
Source database or source:
Energy supply: 1995-1999: the Jožef Stefan Institute (see EN16 – Total Energy Consumption by Fuel), following the year 2000: the Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia (SI-STAT > Energy Balance).
Data for the EU and Slovenia for comparison with the EU: EUROSTAT (100900 Gross inland consumption > All products).
GDP: 1995-2008: the Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia > Constant prices in the previous year, reference year 2000, EUR 2000 exchange rate: the Bank of Slovenia.
Data for the EU and Slovenia for comparison with the EU: EUROSTAT (GDP and main components – volumes > Gross domestic product at market prices > Millions of euro, chain-linked volumes, reference year 2000 (at the year 2000 exchange rates)).
Data administrator: Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia (Mojca Suvorov, Andrej Flajs) or EUROSTAT.
Date of acquisition for the indicator: 8 December 2009
Methodology and frequency of data collection: Data are prepared on an annual basis. There is a difference in the methodology employed by the Slovenian Statistical Office and that employed by EUROSTAT as regards data for the energy balance, as these two institutions use different data for calorific values of individual types of fuel that are required to convert the consumption of fuel in mass units (t, Sm3) into energy units (toe). The Slovenian Statistical Office uses national data on calorific values, while EUROSTAT uses default values that are the same for the entire EU-25 region. Furthermore, there is a difference in the EURO/SIT exchange rate used by EUROSTAT and the Bank of Slovenia, which causes a difference in GDP data.
Data processing methodology: The indicator is calculated as the ratio between energy supply (the item in the energy balance provided by the Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia) or total energy consumption and GDP in the year 2000 constant prices. The time series on gross domestic product is at constant prices of the previous year with the 2000 reference year to avoid the impact of inflation. In calculations, the exchange rate of the year 2000 is used (the Bank of Slovenia, 205.0316 SIT/EUR). For cross-country comparisons, gross domestic product in purchasing power standards (PPS) is used.
Energy supply (total energy consumption) is determined as total inland energy consumption and is calculated in the energy balance as follows:
INDIGENOUS PRODUCTION + IMPORTS – EXPORTS + RESERVES + INTERNATIONAL MARINE BUNKERS.
Average annual rate of growth is calculated using: [(last year/base year)(1 / number of years) –1] x 100.
Geographic coverage: The EU-27 countries are the EU Member States: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, the United Kingdom. The EU-25 countries are the EU Member States excluding Bulgaria and Romania. The EU-15 are the EU Member States prior to enlargement (Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxemburg, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom). The EU-10 countries are the Member States that acceded to the EU in 2004 (Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovakia and Slovenia).
Information concerning data quality:
- Advantages and disadvantages of the indicator: The source of basic data is one institution (the Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia, EUROSTAT) for the entire time frame. This enables a higher quality analysis of events in the treated period. We chose the year 1995 as the initial year, in order to enable comparability with the EU-25 data
- Relevance, accuracy, robustness, uncertainty:
Reliability of the indicator (archival data): Energy intensity calculated using GDP in constant prices is appropriate for time comparisons of energy intensity, while energy intensity calculated using GDP in PPS is more appropriate for cross-country comparisons. PPS are currency conversion rates that convert GDP data to a common currency and equalise the purchasing power of different currencies.
Uncertainty of the indicator (scenarios/projections): scenarios and projections are not available.
- Overall assessment (1 = no major comments, 2 = data to be considered with reservation):
Completeness over time: 2
Completeness over space: 1
Other sources and literature:
- COM(2006) 545 final – Action Plan for Energy Efficiency: Realising the Potential, European Commission.
- EEA, 2007. EN17 Total Energy Intensity.
- Ministry of the Environment and Spatial Planning, 2008. Nacionalni akcijski načrt za energetsko učinkovitost za obdobje 2008-2016 (National Energy Efficiency Action Plan for the 2008-2016 period).
- Institute of Macroeconomic Analysis and Development, 2010. Development Report 2010.