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Key message

In Slovenia, final users have at their disposal only around 70 % of primary energy. The efficiency of electricity and heat production mostly influences this share. Higher electricity consumption also has an influence on higher losses.

The indicator Energy losses in energy conversion and transfer distributes the energy consumption in Slovenia (primary energy) to losses in electricity and heat production (dependent on the production efficiency = consumed energy (fuels) – produced energy (electricity, heat, oil products)), to losses in transfer and distribution, to consumption in the energy sector (in SORS data, this includes the categories Own consumption and Energy sector) and to final energy consumption (non-energy and energy consumption).

Furthermore, the indicator shows the impact of individual fuels on CO2 emissions.

The indicator can be shown in relative (share of individual fuels in total energy consumption) or absolute units. For the indication in absolute units, the thousand tonnes of oil equivalent (ktoe) is used.


Figure EN26-1: The share of energy losses and final consumption in primary energy consumption in Slovenia in the period 2000–2008

Statistical Office of the RS, 2009; Jožef Stefan Institute, 2009.

Show data
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
Loss in transformation % 25.4 26.9 28 25.8 25.7 26.1 25.6 26.3 26.1
Consumption in transformation and in energy sector % 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.4 1.5 1.5 1.6
Losses in networks % 1.5 1.2 1.3 1.5 1.5 1.7 1.5 1.5 1.3
Final consumption % 71.7 70.4 69.3 71.2 71.3 70.8 71.5 70.7 71
Figure EN26-2: Emission factors for CO2 for different fuels in 2007

Statistical Office of the RS, 2009; Environmental Agency of the RS, 2009.

Show data
Solid fuels Oil products Natural gas Renewable sources and waste
Emission factors CO2 [t/TJ] 103 74 55 0
Figure EN26-3: The share of emission factors for CO2 in energy consumption in thermal power plants in 2007

Statistical Office of the RS, 2009; Environmental Agency of the RS, 2009.

Show data
Solid fuels Oil products Natural gas Renewable sources and waste
Shares of individual fuels in consumption % 88 1 9 2


- decrease of energy losses in conversion and transfer;
- improvement of efficiency of energy consumption and decrease of the impact of consumption on the environment.

Final consumption only has a part of the energy consumed in Slovenia at its disposal, due to losses in the energy system (especially in electricity and heat production and their transfer). The scope of these losses is a significant indicator of the impact of the energy system on the environment, since fossil fuels still represent a significant share in consumption.

In 2008, the losses in electricity and heat conversion and transfer represented 28.9 % of the total energy consumption in Slovenia (primary energy). In comparison with 2000, their share increased by 0.6 percentage points. The following factors influence these losses: the efficiency of electricity and heat production, own consumption of power plants and consumption in the energy sector (mines, refineries, compressor stations, etc.) and losses in networks.

Electricity and heat production and conversion contribute the largest share to losses. In 2008, these losses amounted to 26.1 % of primary energy; in 2008, they amounted to 25.4 %. In the period 2000–2008, significant fluctuations were recorded; these shares were between 25.4 % and 28.0 %. The losses are directly connected to the efficiency of electricity and heat production, which is dependent on the efficiency of conversion in thermal power plants and thermal power and heating plants (in 2008, the latter was 0.4 percentage points higher than in 2000), the share of their energy consumption in total energy consumption in conversion, the share of energy consumption in the nuclear power plant (with a constant efficiency of 33 %) and in hydroelectric power plants (with a constant efficiency of 100 %) and the efficiency of heat production in heating plants and their share of energy consumption. The average efficiency of electricity and heat production in Slovenia in 2008 amounted to 44.7 %. The highest was in the year 2000, when the share of electricity from hydroelectric power plants was the highest and the share from the nuclear power plant the lowest; in 2000, heat production in heating plants was the most efficient.

Own energy consumption in electricity and heat production and consumption in the energy sector in 2008 represented 1.6 % of primary energy. This is the highest share in the period 2000–2008, where the range was from 1.4 to 1.6 %. The energy sector is composed of the following branches: electricity, heat and gas supply (E according to the NACE 2002 classification), the production of coke, oil derivatives and nuclear fuel and the production of energy raw materials. Own production represents almost 80 % of energy consumption in this item, inside of which a large part is contributed by own electricity consumption (95 %). In own electricity consumption, there is a big difference between different types of power plants. In thermal power plants, own consumption represents more than 11 % of gross electricity; in the nuclear power plant this is less than 5 % and for hydroelectric power plants less than 2 %.

In networks in 2008, 1.3 % of primary energy was lost, which is the second lowest value in the period 2000–2008. The values ranged between 1.2 % and 1.7 %. The majority of losses are generated in electricity transfer (69 %).

71.1 % of primary energy remained for final consumption in 2008. 3.0 % was consumed for non-energy purposes.

In the EU-27, 70.5 % of primary energy (22.8 % was lost in conversion, 5.2 % due to consumption in the energy sector and 1.5 % due to losses in the network) was available for final consumption in 2005. Luxembourg was the most efficiency country, where 94 % of primary energy was available; Bulgaria was the least efficient, since 48 % of its primary energy was lost (EEA, 2008).

In light of CO2 emissions, the consumption of solid fuels mostly pollutes the environment; such consumption strongly prevails in the conversion of energy into electricity and heat. The consumption of natural gas causes the least CO2 emissions among fossil fuels per energy unit.

Data for Slovenia:

Objectives summarised by: Resolucija o Nacionalnem energetskem programu (ReNEP) (Resolution on the National Energy Programme, Official Gazette of the RS, No. 57/04).

Source database or source: SI-STAT Data Portal > Environment and natural resources > Energy > Energy balance and energy indicators. A joint questionnaire, which is communicated by SORS to EUROSTAT annually, for data on the own consumption of heating plants.

Data administrator: Statistical office of the Republic of Slovenia.

Date of acquisition for this indicator: 9 December 2009.

Methodology and frequency of data collection: The data were prepared on an annual basis. For the previous year, the data are available at the end of the current year.

Data processing methodology:
The calculation of individual contributions:
- Losses in conversion: The consumption of fuels in electricity and heat production from energy balance and in refineries (transformation-total) – electricity and heat production and the production of oil derivatives (transformation total).
- Own consumption in electricity and heat production (electricity – difference between gross production and net production, heat – joint questionnaire).
- Energy consumption in the energy sector (Energy balance of SORS – Energy sector).

The annual growth for the indicator is sometimes shown in percentage points. A percentage point is a unit used for the comparison of different rates of growth. A percentage point includes an absolute comparison calculated by the formula (nthis year)-(nlast year)=16 %–15 %=1 pp (for instance: if last year the growth was 15 % and this year 16 %, then this year the growth was higher by 1 percentage point). The difference in growth can also be expressed in a relative comparison using the formula [(nthis year/nlast year)*100]–100=[(16 %/15 %)*100]–100=6.7 %, where the growth is indicated in percentages.

Information concerning data quality:
- Advantages and disadvantages of the indicator: The source of the basic information is one institution (SORS, EUROSTAT) for the entire time series. This provides a more qualitative analysis of events in the considered period.
- Relevance, accuracy, robustness, uncertainty:
Reliability of the indicator (archive data): The data have the same reliability as the balance of energy consumption – see indicator Final energy consumption by sectors.
Uncertainty of the indicator (scenarios/projections): Scenarios and projections are not available.
- Overall assessment (1 = no major comments, 2 = data to be considered with reservation):
Relevance: 1
Accuracy: 2
Completeness over time: 1
Completeness over space: 1

Other sources and literature:

- EEA, 2008. Energy and environment report 2008.

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